January 2019                                                                                                                                             

Does it matter, living in an urban area?

Well, that depends on the person one asks but in terms of blood lipid levels there seems to be a difference in those who reside in urban compared to rural areas. In a study just published in the BMJ Global Health we systematically reviewed the literature on built-environment characteristics and blood lipid levels. A common built-environment characteristic focus of the 50 included studied was the difference between residence in urban and rural areas in low-income and middle-income countries. The meta-analysis including 36 studies and 133.966 participants showed higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, yet no difference in HDL cholesterol between urban and rural residence.

Happy new year!


A big cheers to all the Upstream Team members around the world. On to new insights, collaborations, successes (small or big), and joy in -as well as outside- your work!


We thank all the members and others who are interested for their engagement in the past year, and look forward to keep the team active.


See news items of 2018, or 2017 or 2016